Episode 3

HEAT REJECTION

Heat from the servers in data centers is usually rejected – via a heat sink – into the atmosphere. In some cases, it may be rejected into a lake or the ground. There are various methods for transferring this heat, including adiabatic coolers, dry coolers, cooling towers and air cooled chillers with remote condensers.  

The choice depends on the location, the availability of water and power requirements. For data centers seeking to use less energy, free cooling solutions that use naturally cool air or water, instead of mechanical refrigeration, are increasingly attractive options. Factors such as the maximum temperature required for the servers and the availability of water and ambient temperatures will influence which cooling system to select.

FREE COOLING POTENTIALS FOR
DIFFERENT LOCATIONS

We have run sample calculations for 5 different locations to show the free cooling potential for each heat rejection method on each location.
Calculations are based on 1 MW with average local temperature data over the past 40 years. 

DUBAI

FRANKFURT

TRONDHEIM

BEIJING

DALLAS

Mean Temperature

Humidity

TRONDHEIM

FRANKFURT

BEIJING

DALLAS

DUBAI

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FOCAL-POINT: REDUCE PUE
AND WUE SELECTING THE RIGHT
HEAT REJECTION METHOD

Heat exchangers, used for heat dissipation, represent a modern technology for reducing energy consumption.
In this focal paper we consider factors that determine the choice of the right solution, such as location and ambient conditions. 


We will discuss the different systems and the effects on your free cooling potential.

READ MORE and DOWNLOAD OUR TECH-PAPER

BEIJING

Dry Cooler

Adiabatic Cooler

Cooling Tower

Mean Temperature

Relative
Humidity

Annual Temperature Distribution

Temperature [°C]

Hours per year

FREE COOLING

73 MWh

0 m³

74%

FREE COOLING

58 MWh

3767 m³

89%

FREE COOLING

16 MWh

18290 m³

94%

Power Consumption             Water Usage

Calculations are based on 1 MW with average local temperature data over the past 40 years. 

 

DALLAS

Dry Cooler

Adiabatic Cooler

Cooling Tower

Mean Temperature

Relative
Humidity

Annual Temperature Distribution

Temperature [°C]

Hours per year

FREE COOLING

101 MWh

0 m³

61%

FREE COOLING

86 MWh

6161 m³

80%

FREE COOLING

21 MWh

18656 m³

93%

Power Consumption             Water Usage

Calculations are based on 1 MW with average local temperature data over the past 40 years. 

 
 

DUBAI

Dry Cooler

Adiabatic Cooler

Cooling Tower

Mean Temperature

Relative
Humidity

Annual Temperature Distribution

Temperature [°C]

Hours per year

FREE COOLING

161 MWh

0 m³

28%

FREE COOLING

136 MWh

13836 m³

54%

FREE COOLING

34 MWh

19883 m³

69%

Power Consumption             Water Usage

Calculations are based on 1 MW with average local temperature data over the past 40 years. 

 

FRANKFURT

Dry Cooler

Adiabatic Cooler

Cooling Tower

Mean Temperature

Relative
Humidity

Annual Temperature Distribution

Temperature [°C]

Hours per year

FREE COOLING

37 MWh

0 m³

93%

FREE COOLING

29 MWh

514 m³

99%

FREE COOLING

9 MWh

17793 m³

100%

Power Consumption             Water Usage

Calculations are based on 1 MW with average local temperature data over the past 40 years. 

 

TRONDHEIM

Dry Cooler

Adiabatic Cooler

Cooling Tower

Mean Temperature

Relative
Humidity

Annual Temperature Distribution

Temperature [°C]

Hours per year

FREE COOLING

16 MWh

0 m³

99%

FREE COOLING

15 MWh

44 m³

100%

FREE COOLING

7 MWh

17643 m³

100%

Power Consumption             Water Usage

Calculations are based on 1 MW with average local temperature data over the past 40 years. 

OUR SOLUTIONS FOR
HEAT REJECTION / HEAT RECOVERY

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PPR_CT_CoolingTower_34.png

Gasketed Plate
Heat Exchanger

Condenser &
Dry Cooler

Adiabatic

Cooler

Cooling

Tower

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Service

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FIND OUT MORE ABOUT
HVAC

App_WhiteSpaceAir.png

White Space Cooling

AIR BASED

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White Space Cooling

LIQUID BASED

App_HeatRejection.png

HEAT REJECTION

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HVAC

Release: 11-2020

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UTILITY COOLING

Release: 12-2020

HEAT RECOVERY

Data centers produce tons of heat, which is usually released into the atmosphere via a heat exchanger. There are several methods for optimizing the free cooling potential to see positive effects on your PUE and WUE. 


Another way to improve the energy footprint is to use the waste heat. This means that the waste heat can be reused to heat a building or fed into a district heating network. 
Heat recovery is another step towards your sustainability balance and we will talk more about this in episode 4.

PUE

Power Usage Efficiency

WUE

Water Usage Efficiency

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